George W. Bush Speeches

Things to notice:

His audience: To whom is he speaking ("fellow citizens," the victims' friends and families, particular reporters, those who join him in prayer,  Muslims of the world, the Taliban, etc.)?  How is each audience addressed?  Notice that he sometimes needs to address more than one audience in the same speech.  Look at how rarely, however, he uses the word "you."  Does this enhance his ethos as president?  Look at the way he uses "apostrophe" to directly address an audience that is  actually not present.  Does he address God in any of these speeches and, if so, how?

His grammar and syntax: Notice how he uses "we" more than "I" in these speeches.  Look at the verbs he uses and how little he uses passive voice.  Think about the order in which he presents nouns in his sentences, and to which ideas, people, or places he is drawing attention.  Notice how he treats conjunctions like "and" in what rhetoricians call "asyndeton" and "polysyndeton."

His use of pathos and logos: What images does he use to evoke an emotional response?  How does he present the emotional response(s) of his fellow Americans?  What logical connections does he make with techniques like analogy, question and answer, and antithesis?

His use of specific oratorical devices: Notice how he uses devices from classical rhetoric like "anaphora," "antistrophe," and "chiasmus."  See the Rhetorical Figures website at the University of Kentucky for a glossary with examples.

His composing process:  The New York Times article claims that the speeches reprinted below, with the exception of the last, were not well received.  Why is the speech before Congress more successful than the others?  How did Bush compose the speech?  Explain the role of "note-taking," "brainstorming," and "trying out sentences on each other."  Who actually wrote the speech and revised it?  Why are speeches from William Lloyd Garrison, Churchill, Roosevelt, and John F. Kennedy mentioned in the article?  Who else in the government was consulted for feedback?  What parties within the government and outside it had competing rhetorical purposes?  Who was responsible for the the final editing?    How did Bush's own experiences in an American Rhetoric course at Yale shape Bush's attitudes about writing?   How did he seek comment from others before actually delivering the speech?  Why was not giving offense considered so important?  How was the speech received?  Why was it considered by the Times journalist as more of an appeal to logos than to pathos?

The importance of time and place: The Greeks called this kairos, the occasion for a speech, the  immediate rhetorical situation.  Pay attention to where he is: the Oval Office, the South Lawn, the National Cathedral, Congress, etc.  And think about how the elapsed time between the disaster and the speech creates a different rhetorical situation.

For Immediate Release
Office of the Press Secretary
September 11, 2001
Statement by the President in His Address to the Nation

8:30 P.M. EDT

THE PRESIDENT: Good evening. Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. The victims were in airplanes, or in their offices; secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers; moms and dads, friends and neighbors. Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror.

What is the function of listing?  Notice his use of asyndeton or the omission of conjunctions for dramatic effect.  What metonymic chains are being created?  How is first person plural ("we" and "our" and "us") used?  What ethos is he drawing upon (not presidential -- note women are specifically mentioned; "secretaries" comes first and "moms" first)?

The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness, and a quiet, unyielding anger. These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed; our country is strong.

Appeals to visual.  More asyndeton.  Appeals to pathos (disbelief, sadness, anger).

A great people has been moved to defend a great nation. Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shattered steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve.

Exploration of metaphors of foundations and steel.  Why the metaphor doesn't really describe America.  Why it isn't a synecdoche either..

America was targeted for attack because we're the brightest beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world. And no one will keep that light from shining.

Suggestion of a new metaphor.  America as a beacon.

Today, our nation saw evil, the very worst of human nature. And we responded with the best of America -- with the daring of our rescue workers, with the caring for strangers and neighbors who came to give blood and help in any way they could.

Rhyme of "daring" and "caring."  Juxtaposition of "blood" and "help"

Immediately following the first attack, I implemented our government's emergency response plans. Our military is powerful, and it's prepared. Our emergency teams are working in New York City and Washington, D.C. to help with local rescue efforts.

Temporary shift into "I" discourse.  "Our military" before "Our emergency teams"

Our first priority is to get help to those who have been injured, and to take every precaution to protect our citizens at home and around the world from further attacks.

The functions of our government continue without interruption. Federal agencies in Washington which had to be evacuated today are reopening for essential personnel tonight, and will be open for business tomorrow. Our financial institutions remain strong, and the American economy will be open for business, as well.

The search is underway for those who are behind these evil acts. I've directed the full resources of our intelligence and law enforcement communities to find those responsible and to bring them to justice. We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.

Use of verbs.  First "I implemented" now "I've directed."  Executive speech.  Now "our intelligence and law enforcement communities" are introduced.  How does last sentence function as an anti-argument of definition?

I appreciate so very much the members of Congress who have joined me in strongly condemning these attacks. And on behalf of the American people, I thank the many world leaders who have called to offer their condolences and assistance.

Now "I appreciate" and "I thank" -- a present action, no past participle to indicate completion.  Ethos of "on behalf of the American people."

America and our friends and allies join with all those who want peace and security in the world, and we stand together to win the war against terrorism. Tonight, I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened. And I pray they will be comforted by a power greater than any of us, spoken through the ages in Psalm 23: "Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me."

Now "I ask" and "I pray."  Function of citation.  Use of Biblical authority.  Prayer as performative speech act.

This is a day when all Americans from every walk of life unite in our resolve for justice and peace. America has stood down enemies before, and we will do so this time. None of us will ever forget this day. Yet, we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world.

Temporal context.  Role of time(s) in a rhetorical situation.

Thank you. Good night, and God bless America.

END 8:35 P.M. EDT 

Office of the Press Secretary
September 14, 2001
President's Remarks at National Day of Prayer and Remembranceen Espaņol
The National Cathedral
Washington, D.C.

Importance of the rhetorical scene.  The "occasional" nature of the speech in a particular time and place.  How it establishes a day of "prayer and remembrance"

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President Proclaims National Day of Prayer and Remembrance

1:00 P.M. EDT

     THE PRESIDENT:  We are here in the middle hour of our grief.  So many have suffered so great a loss, and today we express our nation's sorrow. We come before God to pray for the missing and the dead, and for those who love them.

     On Tuesday, our country was attacked with deliberate and massive cruelty.  We have seen the images of fire and ashes, and bent steel.

     Now come the names, the list of casualties we are only beginning to read.  They are the names of men and women who began their day at a desk or in an airport, busy with life.  They are the names of people who faced death, and in their last moments called home to say, be brave, and I love you.

Context of the time and place of the victims. The rhetoric of the victims who called "home" to say "be brave, and I love you"

     They are the names of passengers who defied their murderers, and prevented the murder of others on the ground.  They are the names of men and women who wore the uniform of the United States, and died at their posts.

     They are the names of rescuers, the ones whom death found running up the stairs and into the fires to help others.  We will read all these names.  We will linger over them, and learn their stories, and many Americans will weep.

Notice use of anaphora in "they are the names of" repetition.  Role of naming.  But where are proper names in this speech?  See Reagan and Clinton speeches for use of proper names in public discourse.

     To the children and parents and spouses and families and friends of the lost, we offer the deepest sympathy of the nation.  And I assure you, you are not alone.

Movement from "we" discourse with "I assure."  Who is the audience for the speech?  First it is "children and parents and spouses and families and friends of the lost"

     Just three days removed from these events, Americans do not yet have the distance of history.  But our responsibility to history is already clear: to answer these attacks and rid the world of evil.

Time of history vs. Time of present

     War has been waged against us by stealth and deceit and murder.  This nation is peaceful, but fierce when stirred to anger.  This conflict was begun on the timing and terms of others.  It will end in a way, and at an hour, of our choosing.

Movement from pathos of sorrow to anger.  How time functions: "the timing . . . of others" and "at an hour, of our choosing."  Use of antithesis.

     Our purpose as a nation is firm.  Yet our wounds as a people are recent and unhealed, and lead us to pray.  In many of our prayers this week, there is a searching, and an honesty.  At St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York on Tuesday, a woman said, "I prayed to God to give us a sign that He is still here."  Others have prayed for the same, searching hospital to hospital, carrying pictures of those still missing.

Causal chain that leads to prayer.  Now the audience for the speech seems to be more generally other people praying at the same time.  Assumption of "honesty" in "searching" prayers "this week."  Rhetoric of the anonymous woman praying.  Pathos of image of people carrying images.

     God's signs are not always the ones we look for.  We learn in tragedy that his purposes are not always our own.  Yet the prayers of private suffering, whether in our homes or in this great cathedral, are known and heard, and understood.

Semiotic and theological connections.  "Theodicy" or the problem of how a just God allows injustice in the world (or a merciful God allows cruelty in the world) if He is all-powerful.  Does the rhetoric of address move to God and explicitly become prayer?

     There are prayers that help us last through the day, or endure the night.  There are prayers of friends and strangers, that give us strength for the journey.  And there are prayers that yield our will to a will greater than our own.

     This world He created is of moral design.  Grief and tragedy and hatred are only for a time.  Goodness, remembrance, and love have no end. And the Lord of life holds all who die, and all who mourn.

Temporal orientation: Human time vs. Divine time.  Use of antithesis.  Use of polysyndeton or the use of grammatical constructions with multiple conjunctions (like "and").

     It is said that adversity introduces us to ourselves.  This is true of a nation as well.  In this trial, we have been reminded, and the world has seen, that our fellow Americans are generous and kind, resourceful and brave.  We see our national character in rescuers working past exhaustion; in long lines of blood donors; in thousands of citizens who have asked to work and serve in any way possible.

Use of the passive voice.  Indirect quotation.  Reference to "national character" and question of the national ethos that the president draws upon.

     And we have seen our national character in eloquent acts of sacrifice. Inside the World Trade Center, one man who could have saved himself stayed until the end at the side of his quadriplegic friend.  A beloved priest died giving the last rites to a firefighter.  Two office workers, finding a disabled stranger, carried her down sixty-eight floors to safety.  A group of men drove through the night from Dallas to Washington to bring skin grafts for burn victims.

Role of examples.  All gendered as male except the "disabled stranger."

     In these acts, and in many others, Americans showed a deep commitment to one another, and an abiding love for our country.  Today, we feel what Franklin Roosevelt called the warm courage of national unity.  This is a unity of every faith, and every background.

Drawing on the ethos of Roosevelt.

     It has joined together political parties in both houses of Congress. It is evident in services of prayer and candlelight vigils, and American flags, which are displayed in pride, and wave in defiance.

Chain of prayer, vigils, flags.  Semiotics of the flag that is "displayed in pride" and "waved in defiance"

     Our unity is a kinship of grief, and a steadfast resolve to prevail against our enemies.  And this unity against terror is now extending across the world.

     America is a nation full of good fortune, with so much to be grateful for.  But we are not spared from suffering.  In every generation, the world has produced enemies of human freedom.  They have attacked America, because we are freedom's home and defender.  And the commitment of our fathers is now the calling of our time.

     On this national day of prayer and remembrance, we ask almighty God to watch over our nation, and grant us patience and resolve in all that is to come.  We pray that He will comfort and console those who now walk in sorrow.  We thank Him for each life we now must mourn, and the promise of a life to come.

Explicit prayer, but God is addressed in third person.

     As we have been assured, neither death nor life, nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come, nor height nor depth, can separate us from God's love.  May He bless the souls of the departed.  May He comfort our own.  And may He always guide our country.

     God bless America.

How does this catchphrase function in the rhetoric of the nation?  It even appears on advertisements and television spots.

                             END                 1:07 P.M. EDT

For Immediate Release
Office of the Press Secretary
September 16, 2001
Remarks by the President Upon Arrival
The South Lawn

More quotidien time and place.

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3:23 P.M. EDT

             THE PRESIDENT:  Today, millions of Americans mourned and prayed, and tomorrow we go back to work.  Today, people from all walks of life gave thanks for the heroes; they mourn the dead; they ask for God's good graces on the families who mourn, and tomorrow the good people of America go back to their shops, their fields, American factories, and go back to work.

Temporal orientation of leaving time of reflection and returning to time of action.

             Our nation was horrified, but it's not going to be terrorized. We're a great nation.  We're a nation of resolve.  We're a nation that can't be cowed by evil-doers.  I've got great faith in the American people. If the American people had seen what I had seen in New York City, you'd have great faith, too.  You'd have faith in the hard work of the rescuers; you'd have great faith because of the desire for people to do what's right for America; you'd have great faith because of the compassion and love that our fellow Americans are showing each other in times of need.

His authority as a witness who has seen the site in New York City.  Credibility issues and "faith."

             I also have faith in our military.  And we have got a job to do - just like the farmers and ranchers and business owners and factory workers have a job to do.  My administration has a job to do, and we're going to do it.  We will rid the world of the evil-doers.  We will call together freedom loving people to fight terrorism.

Conflation of different types of labor.

             And on on this day of - on the Lord's Day, I say to my fellow Americans, thank you for your prayers, thank you for your compassion, thank you for your love for one another.  And tomorrow when you get back to work, work hard like you always have.  But we've been warned.  We've been warned there are evil people in this world.  We've been warned so vividly - and we'll be alert.  Your government is alert.  The governors and mayors are alert that evil folks still lurk out there.

Temporal orientation less clear.  Time of reflection seemed in past tense in opening, but now he reminds us of the fact that it is "the Lord's day."

             As I said yesterday, people have declared war on America, and they have made a terrible mistake, because this is a fabulous country.  Our economy will come back.  We'll still be the best farmers and ranchers in the world.  We're still the most innovative entrepreneurs in the world.  On this day of faith, I've never had more faith in America than I have right now.

Different kind of "I" discourse.  Self-consciousness about his own rhetoric: "I said yesterday."

             Q            Mr. President, are you worried this crisis might send us into a recession?

             THE PRESIDENT:  David, I understand that there are some businesses that hurt as a result of this crisis.  Obviously, New York City hurts.  Congress acted quickly.  We worked together, the White House and the Congress, to pass a significant supplemental.  A lot of that money was dedicated to New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, as it should be.  People will be amazed at how quickly we rebuild New York; how quickly people come together to really wipe away the rubble and show the world that we're still the strongest nation in the world.

Address to an individual

             But I have great faith in the resiliency of the economy.  And no question about it, this incident affected our economy, but the markets open tomorrow, people go back to work and we'll show the world.

             Q            Mr. President, do you believe Osama bin Laden's denial that he had anything to do with this?

             THE PRESIDENT:  No question he is the prime suspect.  No question about that.

Bin Laden's rhetoric becomes an issue.  Response to "denial."

             Q            Mr. President, can you describe your conversation with the President of Pakistan and the specific comments he made to you? And, in addition to that, do you see other - you've asked Saudi Arabia to help out, other countries?

             THE PRESIDENT:  John, I will - obviously, I made a call to the leader of Pakistan.  We had a very good, open conversation.  And there is no question that he wants to cooperate with the United States.  I'm not at liberty to detail specifically what we have asked him to do.  In the course of this conduct of this war against terrorism, I'll be asked a lot, and members of my administration will be asked a lot of questions about our strategies and tactics.  And in order to protect the lives of people that will be involved in different operations, I'm not at liberty to talk about it and I won't talk about it.

Discussion with Pakistan is secret.  Bush is "not at liberty to talk about it and . . . won't talk about it."

             But I can tell you that the response from Pakistan; Prime Minister Vajpayee today, of India, Saudi Arabia, has been very positive and very straightforward.  They know what my intentions are.  They know my intentions are to find those who did this, find those who encouraged them, find them who house them, find those who comfort them, and bring them to justice.

How Bush characterizes his rhetorical interactions with other world leaders and definition of areas of concern as Pakistan, India, and Saudi Arabia.  He doesn't say what he says to them, but can characterize their response.

             I made that very clear.  There is no doubt in anybody's mind with whom I've had a conversation about the intent of the United States.  I gave them ample opportunity to say they were uncomfortable with our goal. And the leaders you've asked about have said they were comfortable.  They said, we understand, Mr. President, and we're with you.

Assertion of own clarity and problem of "protesting too much"

             Q            Mr. President, the Attorney General is going to ask for enhanced law enforcement authority to surveil and - things to disrupt terrorism that might be planned here in the United States.  What will that mean for the rights of Americans?  What will that mean -

             THE PRESIDENT:  Terry, I ask you to talk to the Attorney General about that subject.  He'll be prepared to talk about it publicly at some point in time.  But what he is doing is, he's reflecting what I said earlier in my statement, that we're facing a new kind of enemy, somebody so barbaric that they would fly airplanes into buildings full of innocent people. And, therefore, we have to be on alert in America.  We're a nation of law, a nation of civil rights.  We're also a nation under attack.  And the Attorney General will address that in a way that I think the American people will understand.

Lack of public discourse about civil rights.  Other person (Ashcroft) will be responsible at an unspecified "some point in time."  More self-conscious rhetoric that refers to own statement.

             We need to go back to work tomorrow and we will.  But we need to be alert to the fact that these evil-doers still exist.  We haven't seen this kind of barbarism in a long period of time.  No one could have conceivably imagined suicide bombers burrowing into our society and then emerging all in the same day to fly their aircraft - fly U.S. aircraft into buildings full of innocent people - and show no remorse.  This is a new kind of  -- a new kind of evil.  And we understand.  And the American people are beginning to understand.  This crusade, this war on terrorism is going to take a while.  And the American people must be patient.  I'm going to be patient.

The word "crusade" appears over and over in Bin Laden's subsequent rhetoric.  Reception in Islamic world not considered at this point in presidential discourse.

             But I can assure the American people I am determined, I'm not going to be distracted, I will keep my focus to make sure that not only are these brought to justice, but anybody who's been associated will be brought to justice.  Those who harbor terrorists will be brought to justice.  It is time for us to win the first war of the 21st century decisively, so that our children and our grandchildren can live peacefully into the 21st century.

The phrase "first war of the 21st century" later would become the title of a panel on Al-Jezeera television

             Q            Mr. President, you've declared we're at war and asked those who wear the uniform to get ready.  Should the American public also be ready for the possibility of casualties in this war?

             THE PRESIDENT:  Patsy, the American people should know that my administration is determined to find, to get them running and to hunt them down, those who did this to America.  Now, I want to remind the American people that the prime suspect's organization is in a lot of countries - it's a widespread organization based upon one thing:  terrorizing.  They can't stand freedom; they hate what America stands for.  So this will be a long campaign, a determined campaign - a campaign that will use the resources of the United States to win.

Reductionism of basis of enemy.

             They have roused a mighty giant.  And make no mistake about it:  we're determined.  Oh, there will be times when people don't have this incident on their minds, I understand that.  There will be times down the road where citizens will be concerned about other matters, and I completely understand that.  But this administration, along with those friends of ours who are willing to stand with us all the way through will do what it takes to rout terrorism out of the world.

Metaphor of America as a "mighty giant"

             Q            Mr. President, in your conversation with Pakistan's leader, was there any request or demand you made of him that he failed to satisfy?

             THE PRESIDENT:  The leader of Pakistan has been very cooperative.  He has agreed with our requests to aid our nation to hunt down, to find, to smoke out of their holes the terrorist organization that is the prime suspect.  And I am pleased with his response.  We will continue to work with Pakistan and India.  We will work with Russia.  We will work with the nations that one would have thought a couple of years ago would have been impossible to work with - to bring people to justice. But more than that, to win the war against terrorist activity.

Repetition of "prime suspect."  Verbs: "rout," "hunt down," "find," "smoke out."

             The American people are used to a conflict where there was a beachhead or a desert to cross or known military targets.  That may occur. But right now we're facing people who hit and run.  They hide in caves. We'll get them out.

             The other day I said, not only will we find those who have affected America, or who might affect America in the future, we'll also deal with those who harbor them.

             Q            Mr. President, would you confirm what the Vice President said this morning, that at one point during this crisis you gave an order to shoot down any civilian airliner that approached the Capitol? Was that a difficult decision to make?

             THE PRESIDENT:  I gave our military the orders necessary to protect Americans, do whatever it would take to protect Americans.  And of course that's difficult.  Never did anybody's thought process about how to protect America did we ever think that the evil-doers would fly not one, but four commercial aircraft into precious U.S. targets - never.  And so, obviously, when I was told what was taking place, when I was informed that an unidentified aircraft was headed to the heart of the capital, I was concerned.  I wasn't concerned about my decision; I was more concerned about the lives of innocent Americans.  I had realized there on the ground in Florida we were under attack.  But never did I dream we would have been under attack this way.

How "I" discourse functions.  Descriptions "I was informed" and "I was concerned" and states of consciousness "I had realized" and "I did dream"

             That's why I say to the American people we've never seen this kind of evil before.  But the evil-doers have never seen the American people in action before, either - and they're about to find out.

             Thank you all very much.

                                                                         END 3:36 P.M. EDT

For Immediate Release
Office of the Press Secretary
September 20, 2001
Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People en Espaņol
United States Capitol
Washington, D.C.

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9:00 P.M. EDT In a historic address to the nation and joint session of Congress Sept. 20, President Bush pledges to defend America's freedom against the fear of terrorism. White House by Eric Draper.

THE PRESIDENT:  Mr. Speaker, Mr. President Pro Tempore, members of Congress, and fellow Americans:

In the normal course of events, Presidents come to this chamber to report on the state of the Union.  Tonight, no such report is needed.  It has already been delivered by the American people.

How he sets the rhetorical context.  How he draws upon Presidential ethos in "this chamber."  Is he focusing more on place and less on time.  Report "already delivered to the American people."

We have seen it in the courage of passengers, who rushed terrorists to save others on the ground -- passengers like an exceptional man named Todd Beamer.  And would you please help me to welcome his wife, Lisa Beamer, here tonight.  (Applause.)

Now we have a Reaganesque or Clintonesque use of proper names.

We have seen the state of our Union in the endurance of rescuers, working past exhaustion.  We have seen the unfurling of flags, the lighting of candles, the giving of blood, the saying of prayers -- in English, Hebrew, and Arabic.  We have seen the decency of a loving and giving people who have made the grief of strangers their own.

Rhetoric of prayer is now constructed in many languages.  More anaphora with "we have seen."

My fellow citizens, for the last nine days, the entire world has seen for itself the state of our Union -- and it is strong.  (Applause.)

Limited temporal context of "last nine days" but large audience of "the entire world"

Tonight we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom.  Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution.  Whether we bring our enemies to justice, or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be done.  (Applause.)

Pathos moves from "grief" to "anger" to "resolution" (and rhetorical use anadiplosis or a particular kind of rhetorical device that involves "doubling back."  How has the President's own speech moved through these states?  Rhetorical inversion (or chiasmus) of "justice"/"enemies" pair and virtuoso performance.

I thank the Congress for its leadership at such an important time.  All of America was touched on the evening of the tragedy to see Republicans and Democrats joined together on the steps of this Capitol, singing "God Bless America."  And you did more than sing; you acted, by delivering $40 billion to rebuild our communities and meet the needs of our military.

Rhetoric of singing congressmen.  Relation of song to action.

Speaker Hastert, Minority Leader Gephardt, Majority Leader Daschle and Senator Lott, I thank you for your friendship, for your leadership and for your service to our country.  (Applause.)

And on behalf of the American people, I thank the world for its outpouring of support.  America will never forget the sounds of our National Anthem playing at Buckingham Palace, on the streets of Paris, and at Berlin's Brandenburg Gate.

We will not forget South Korean children gathering to pray outside our embassy in Seoul, or the prayers of sympathy offered at a mosque in Cairo.  We will not forget moments of silence and days of mourning in Australia and Africa and Latin America.British Prime Minister Tony Blair (center, left) Mrs. Laura Bush attends a joint session of Congress in which President Bush praised the efforts of New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani (far right) and named Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge (far left) to a newly created cabinet-level position in which he will oversee the homeland defense initiatives. White House photo by Paul Morse.

Sites beyond America of the rhetoric of patriotic music and prayer.  Shift in address to an international audience in the President's speech.

Nor will we forget the citizens of 80 other nations who died with our own:  dozens of Pakistanis; more than 130 Israelis; more than 250 citizens of India; men and women from El Salvador, Iran, Mexico and Japan; and hundreds of British citizens.  America has no truer friend than Great Britain.  (Applause.)   Once again, we are joined together in a great cause -- so honored the British Prime Minister has crossed an ocean to show his unity of purpose with America.  Thank you for coming, friend.  (Applause.)

Pathos of international victims.  Our empathy to other nations as well as their empathy to us.  Rhetorical use of "friend" can extend beyond legislators to entire countries, with Great Britain paramount.  Ethos of Blair.

On September the 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country.  Americans have known wars -- but for the past 136 years, they have been wars on foreign soil, except for one Sunday in 1941.  Americans have known the casualties of war -- but not at the center of a great city on a peaceful morning.  Americans have known surprise attacks -- but never before on thousands of civilians.  All of this was brought upon us in a single day -- and night fell on a different world, a world where freedom itself is under attack.

Historical time and exceptionalism.  Rhetoric of "day that will live in infamy."

Americans have many questions tonight.  Americans are asking:  Who attacked our country?  The evidence we have gathered all points to a collection of loosely affiliated terrorist organizations known as al Qaeda.  They are the same murderers indicted for bombing American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya, and responsible for bombing the USS Cole.

Questions are explicitly raised and answered.  Questions are not merely "rhetorical questions."  How does this question and answer technique work like a kind of catechism?

Al Qaeda is to terror what the mafia is to crime.  But its goal is not making money; its goal is remaking the world -- and imposing its radical beliefs on people everywhere.

The terrorists practice a fringe form of Islamic extremism that has been rejected by Muslim scholars and the vast majority of Muslim clerics -- a fringe movement that perverts the peaceful teachings of Islam.  The terrorists' directive commands them to kill Christians and Jews, to kill all Americans, and make no distinction among military and civilians, including women and children.

This group and its leader -- a person named Osama bin Laden -- are linked to many other organizations in different countries, including the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.  There are thousands of these terrorists in more than 60 countries.  They are recruited from their own nations and neighborhoods and brought to camps in places like Afghanistan, where they are trained in the tactics of terror.  They are sent back to their homes or sent to hide in countries around the world to plot evil and destruction.

The leadership of al Qaeda has great influence in Afghanistan and supports the Taliban regime in controlling most of that country.  In Afghanistan, we see al Qaeda's vision for the world.

Terrorists are not abstract "evil-doers."  They too have proper names.

Afghanistan's people have been brutalized -- many are starving and many have fled.  Women are not allowed to attend school.  You can be jailed for owning a television.  Religion can be practiced only as their leaders dictate.  A man can be jailed in Afghanistan if his beard is not long enough.

Scene depicted now moves to Afghanistan.

The United States respects the people of Afghanistan -- after all, we are currently its largest source of humanitarian aid -- but we condemn the Taliban regime.  (Applause.)  It is not only repressing its own people, it is threatening people everywhere by sponsoring and sheltering and supplying terrorists.  By aiding and abetting murder, the Taliban regime is committing murder.

And tonight, the United States of America makes the following demands on the Taliban:  Deliver to United States authorities all the leaders of al Qaeda who hide in your land. (Applause.)  Release all foreign nationals, including American citizens, you have unjustly imprisoned.  Protect foreign journalists, diplomats and aid workers in your country.  Close immediately and permanently every terrorist training camp in Afghanistan, and hand over every terrorist, and every person in their support structure, to appropriate authorities.  (Applause.)  Give the United States full access to terrorist training camps, so we can make sure they are no longer operating.

Speech is now addressed to the Taliban.  Notice use of apostrophe or the sudden turn to a specific if unavailable addressee.  But this is the rhetoric of the order or demand as a speech act.  What are the verbs?  "Deliver . . . leaders," "Release . . . foreign nationals," "Protect . . . foreign journalists," "Close . . . every terrorist training camp," "hand over every terrorist,: and "Give . . . full access."

These demands are not open to negotiation or discussion.  (Applause.)  The Taliban must act, and act immediately.  They will hand over the terrorists, or they will share in their fate.

I also want to speak tonight directly to Muslims throughout the world.  We respect your faith.  It's practiced freely by many millions of Americans, and by millions more in countries that America counts as friends.  Its teachings are good and peaceful, and those who commit evil in the name of Allah blaspheme the name of Allah.  (Applause.)  The terrorists are traitors to their own faith, trying, in effect, to hijack Islam itself.  The enemy of America is not our many Muslim friends; it is not our many Arab friends.  Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists, and every government that supports them.  (Applause.)

Speech is now addressed "directly to Muslims throughout the world."   A different kind of apostrophe.  Use of "we" discourse.

Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there.  It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated.  (Applause.)

Americans are asking, why do they hate us?  They hate what we see right here in this chamber -- a democratically elected government.  Their leaders are self-appointed.  They hate our freedoms -- our freedom of religion, our freedom of speech, our freedom to vote and assemble and disagree with each other.

They want to overthrow existing governments in many Muslim countries, such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan.  They want to drive Israel out of the Middle East.  They want to drive Christians and Jews out of vast regions of Asia and Africa.

More question and answer.  Note the difference between abstract answer about 1st amendment and concrete answer about political aims abroad.

These terrorists kill not merely to end lives, but to disrupt and end a way of life.  With every atrocity, they hope that America grows fearful, retreating from the world and forsaking our friends.  They stand against us, because we stand in their way.

We are not deceived by their pretenses to piety.  We have seen their kind before.  They are the heirs of all the murderous ideologies of the 20th century.  By sacrificing human life to serve their radical visions -- by abandoning every value except the will to power -- they follow in the path of fascism, and Nazism, and totalitarianism.  And they will follow that path all the way, to where it ends:  in history's unmarked grave of discarded lies. (Applause.)

Dense and grammatically complex image of "history's unmarked grave of discarded lies."

Americans are asking:  How will we fight and win this war?   We will direct every resource at our command -- every means of diplomacy, every tool of intelligence, every instrument of law enforcement, every financial influence, and every necessary weapon of war -- to the disruption and to the defeat of the global terror network.

More question and answer.  First, "who attacked our country?"  Second, "why do they hate us?"  Third, "how will we fight and win this war?"  How do these questions specifically reflect the language of stories run in major media like Time and Newsweek?

This war will not be like the war against Iraq a decade ago, with a decisive liberation of territory and a swift conclusion.  It will not look like the air war above Kosovo two years ago, where no ground troops were used and not a single American was lost in combat.

More immediate historical context than 1941.

Our response involves far more than instant retaliation and isolated strikes.  Americans should not expect one battle, but a lengthy campaign, unlike any other we have ever seen.  It may include dramatic strikes, visible on TV, and covert operations, secret even in success.  We will starve terrorists of funding, turn them one against another, drive them from place to place, until there is no refuge or no rest.  And we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism.  Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.  (Applause.)  From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime.

Horrors and limits of American vision.  TV as a window on the war that may not be accurate.  Either or argument and logical problem.  Address to nations could be construed as address to American citizens (see Adbusters)

Our nation has been put on notice:  We are not immune from attack.  We will take defensive measures against terrorism to protect Americans.  Today, dozens of federal departments and agencies, as well as state and local governments, have responsibilities affecting homeland security.  These efforts must be coordinated at the highest level.  So tonight I announce the creation of a Cabinet-level position reporting directly to me -- the Office of Homeland Security.

And tonight I also announce a distinguished American to lead this effort, to strengthen American security: a military veteran, an effective governor, a true patriot, a trusted friend -- Pennsylvania's Tom Ridge.  (Applause.)  He will lead, oversee and coordinate a comprehensive national strategy to safeguard our country against terrorism, and respond to any attacks that may come.

I discourse: "I announce."  Creation of Office of Homeland Security by speech act.

These measures are essential.  But the only way to defeat terrorism as a threat to our way of life is to stop it, eliminate it, and destroy it where it grows.  (Applause.)

Many will be involved in this effort, from FBI agents to intelligence operatives to the reservists we have called to active duty.  All deserve our thanks, and all have our prayers.  And tonight, a few miles from the damaged Pentagon, I have a message for our military:  Be ready.  I've called the Armed Forces to alert, and there is a reason.  The hour is coming when America will act, and you will make us proud.  (Applause.)

Rhetorical scene near the "damaged Pentagon" and "hour is coming" when America will act and a very different "you" is referred to.

This is not, however, just America's fight.  And what is at stake is not just America's freedom.  This is the world's fight.  This is civilization's fight.  This is the fight of all who believe in progress and pluralism, tolerance and freedom.

Notice use of antistrophe in use of "fight."

We ask every nation to join us.  We will ask, and we will need, the help of police forces, intelligence services, and banking systems around the world.  The United States is grateful that many nations and many international organizations have already responded -- with sympathy and with support.  Nations from Latin America, to Asia, to Africa, to Europe, to the Islamic world.  Perhaps the NATO Charter reflects best the attitude of the world:  An attack on one is an attack on all.

The civilized world is rallying to America's side.  They understand that if this terror goes unpunished, their own cities, their own citizens may be next.  Terror, unanswered, can not only bring down buildings, it can threaten the stability of legitimate governments.  And you know what -- we're not going to allow it.  (Applause.)

Americans are asking:  What is expected of us?  I ask you to live your lives, and hug your children.  I know many citizens have fears tonight, and I ask you to be calm and resolute, even in the face of a continuing threat.

Final question and answer to "What is expected of us?"

I ask you to uphold the values of America, and remember why so many have come here.  We are in a fight for our principles, and our first responsibility is to live by them.  No one should be singled out for unfair treatment or unkind words because of their ethnic background or religious faith.  (Applause.)

I ask you to continue to support the victims of this tragedy with your contributions.  Those who want to give can go to a central source of information,, to find the names of groups providing direct help in New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

The thousands of FBI agents who are now at work in this investigation may need your cooperation, and I ask you to give it.

I ask for your patience, with the delays and inconveniences that may accompany tighter security; and for your patience in what will be a long struggle.

I ask your continued participation and confidence in the American economy.  Terrorists attacked a symbol of American prosperity.  They did not touch its source.  America is successful because of the hard work, and creativity, and enterprise of our people.  These were the true strengths of our economy before September 11th, and they are our strengths today. (Applause.)

And, finally, please continue praying for the victims of terror and their families, for those in uniform, and for our great country.  Prayer has comforted us in sorrow, and will help strengthen us for the journey ahead.

Role of repetition in the rhetoric and anaphora of "I ask."  Address that asks rather than demands: 1) live your lives and hug your children, 2) be calm and resolute, 3) uphold the values of America, 4) continue to support the victims of this tragedy with contributions, 5) give FBI cooperation, 6) patience with delays, and 7) participation in the economy.  Ends with request to "please" continue praying.

Tonight I thank my fellow Americans for what you have already done and for what you will do.  And ladies and gentlemen of the Congress, I thank you, their representatives, for what you have already done and for what we will do together.

Tonight, we face new and sudden national challenges.  We will come together to improve air safety, to dramatically expand the number of air marshals on domestic flights, and take new measures to prevent hijacking.  We will come together to promote stability and keep our airlines flying, with direct assistance during this emergency.  (Applause.)

We will come together to give law enforcement the additional tools it needs to track down terror here at home.  (Applause.)  We will come together to strengthen our intelligence capabilities to know the plans of terrorists before they act, and find them before they strike.  (Applause.)

We will come together to take active steps that strengthen America's economy, and put our people back to work.

More anaphora: repetition of "we will come together."

Tonight we welcome two leaders who embody the extraordinary spirit of all New Yorkers:  Governor George Pataki, and Mayor Rudolph Giuliani.  (Applause.)  As a symbol of America's resolve, my administration will work with Congress, and these two leaders, to show the world that we will rebuild New York City.  (Applause.)

Introduction of Pataki and Guiliani.

After all that has just passed -- all the lives taken, and all the possibilities and hopes that died with them -- it is natural to wonder if America's future is one of fear.  Some speak of an age of terror.  I know there are struggles ahead, and dangers to face.  But this country will define our times, not be defined by them.  As long as the United States of America is determined and strong, this will not be an age of terror; this will be an age of liberty, here and across the world.  (Applause.)

Use of chiasmus: country defines times not times define country

Great harm has been done to us.  We have suffered great loss.  And in our grief and anger we have found our mission and our moment.  Freedom and fear are at war.  The advance of human freedom -- the great achievement of our time, and the great hope of every time -- now depends on us.  Our nation -- this generation -- will lift a dark threat of violence from our people and our future.  We will rally the world to this cause by our efforts, by our courage.  We will not tire, we will not falter, and we will not fail.  (Applause.)

It is my hope that in the months and years ahead, life will return almost to normal.  We'll go back to our lives and routines, and that is good.  Even grief recedes with time and grace.  But our resolve must not pass.  Each of us will remember what happened that day, and to whom it happened.  We'll remember the moment the news came -- where we were and what we were doing.  Some will remember an image of a fire, or a story of rescue.  Some will carry memories of a face and a voice gone forever.

Rhetorical context of individual Americans hearing the news (and the question with which we started this class).

And I will carry this:  It is the police shield of a man named George Howard, who died at the World Trade Center trying to save others.  It was given to me by his mom, Arlene, as a proud memorial to her son.  This is my reminder of lives that ended, and a task that does not end.  (Applause.)

Use of emblem of shield in speech as rhetorical device.  Use of proper name.

I will not forget this wound to our country or those who inflicted it.  I will not yield; I will not rest; I will not relent in waging this struggle for freedom and security for the American people.

"I" discourse.  Expression of personal resolve.

The course of this conflict is not known, yet its outcome is certain.  Freedom and fear, justice and cruelty, have always been at war, and we know that God is not neutral between them.  (Applause.)

Fellow citizens, we'll meet violence with patient justice -- assured of the rightness of our cause, and confident of the victories to come.  In all that lies before us, may God grant us wisdom, and may He watch over the United States of America.

Ends not in a direct appeal to God, but an address to "fellow citizens."

Thank you.  (Applause.)

                            END          9:41 P.M. EDT